A shard is a division within a keyspace. A shard typically contains one MySQL master and many MySQL replicas.

Each MySQL instance within a shard has the same data (excepting some replication lag). The replicas can serve read-only traffic (with eventual consistency guarantees), execute long-running data analysis tools, or perform administrative tasks (backup, restore, diff, etc.).

An unsharded keyspace has effectively one shard. Vitess names the shard 0 by convention. When sharded, a keyspace has N shards with non-overlapping data.

Shard Naming #

Shard names have the following characteristics:

  • They represent a range, where the left number is included, but the right is not.
  • Their notation is hexadecimal.
  • They are left justified.
  • A - prefix means: anything less than the right value.
  • A - postfix means: anything greater than or equal to the LHS value.
  • A plain - denotes the full keyrange.

Thus: -80 == 00-80 == 0000-8000 == 000000-800000

80- is not the same as 80-FF. This is why:

80-FF == 8000-FF00. Therefore FFFF will be out of the 80-FF range.

80- means: ‘anything greater than or equal to 0x80

A hash vindex produces an 8-byte number. This means that all numbers less than 0x8000000000000000 will fall in shard -80. Any number with the highest bit set will be >= 0x8000000000000000, and will therefore belong to shard 80-.

This left-justified approach allows you to have keyspace ids of arbitrary length. However, the most significant bits are the ones on the left.

For example an md5 hash produces 16 bytes. That can also be used as a keyspace id.

A varbinary of arbitrary length can also be mapped as is to a keyspace id. This is what the binary vindex does.

Resharding #

Vitess supports resharding, in which the number of shards is changed on a live cluster. This can be either splitting one or more shards into smaller pieces, or merging neighboring shards into bigger pieces.

During resharding, the data in the source shards is copied into the destination shards, allowed to catch up on replication, and then compared against the original to ensure data integrity. Then the live serving infrastructure is shifted to the destination shards, and the source shards are deleted.

Related Vitess Documentation